Jovian Moons [ID: 1]

There are at least 63 jovian moons! The largest four moons, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, are called the Galilean satellites because they were discovered by Galileo. We do not get close to them because Juno is in a polar orbit, but occasionally the spacecraft is close enough for images to be worthwhile. For example at PJ17 we imaged a volcanic plume erupting from Io!


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  1. comment by Andrew-R-Brown on 2024-03-10 19:54 UT

    Any chance of Stellar Reference Camera images of Io? Was radiation noise a problem?

    Will there be any Thebe & / or Amalthea passes possible & / or an orbital change at apojove to allow a close Callisto encounter?

    Thank You.

  2. comment by Ercolani-35 on 2024-02-22 16:57 UT

    Did Juno data also helped shaping the perspective of subsequent projects like Europe Clipper (that is expected to reach the Jovian system in 2030)? Thank you

  3. comment by Michael_Ferrer on 2023-12-10 21:37 UT

    It is possible for Juno to encounter any of the 4 very small inner moons of Jupiter like Amalthea and Thebe during any Perijove? Maybe just like asteroids that are relatively pristine samples of the early solar system, maybe the inner moons contain clue on how Jupiter and the rocky solar system bodies formed. And we will be able to confirm the relationships between the 4 and Jupiter's faint rings.

  4. comment by Michael_Ferrer on 2023-12-04 20:23 UT
    comment removed.
  5. comment by FoldedZero on 2023-11-28 21:30 UT

    its benny worem

  6. comment by Pavlov-37 on 2023-11-06 12:20 UT

    The moons of f.e. Jupiter are very interesting. It are worlds like our own planet. We need to send more spacecrafts to these worlds in order to learn more about them. It can only be good for our understanding of the solar system where we live in.

  7. comment by Venturelli-80 on 2023-10-02 12:16 UT

    Ganymede is essentially a planet, and possibly suitable for life. It deserves far more attention

  8. comment by Ercolani-35 on 2023-08-03 21:04 UT

    The Galileans are the most interesting for lay people like me, so, good photos can attract widespread attention & encourage the scientists even more, thank you

  9. comment by Sakir23 on 2023-07-16 21:14 UT


  10. comment by Ovruch-79 on 2023-05-24 10:58 UT

    IO is the third largest jupiter moon

  11. comment by Massimocalvani-58 on 2023-05-24 10:44 UT

    Jovian moons are mind-blowing! They orbit around Jupiter, and there are so many of them. Some, like Europa and Ganymede, might even have water and potential for life! It's crazy to think about the diversity and possibilities in our own solar system. Exploring these moons could unlock secrets about our own origins and the potential for extraterrestrial life. Jovian moons are like hidden gems waiting to be discovered, and they make me super excited about the wonders of space!

  12. comment by Syed-Murtaza-Rizvi on 2023-04-18 16:34 UT

    But I found an Image of Europa int he data set and it was very crisp and worthy. I have worked on it and it turned out to be amazing, In my opinion at least

  13. comment by Polarcuspian on 2022-09-28 15:52 UT

    Juno is in a polar orbit.

    This is circumpolar science.

    We need to travel to other planets often to notice the unique regions of polarcusp dropins and outflows.

    Few think this is worthy of Earth study, but it is also here.

    • comment by Polarcuspian on 2022-09-28 15:56 UT

      I have tried to change my name in profile to Polarcuspian.

      I am not oriental, but North American.

      And i want my research known by my name, not stolen. fwater@, C. Luke Gurbin, not a person we are at war with. Do frame me.

    • comment by Polarcuspian on 2022-10-01 11:33 UT

      The circumpolar science is unique. I lived a while in Nunavut. There is a theory floating at JUNOsite of polar aurora causing heating of the planet.

      In my opinion, tjis will not be accurate. Why?

      These are ICE LIGHT areas. Auras do not happen outside polar regions. There is radioactivity involved as the colloidal is a mix of molecules, but also NH3.

      In Nunavut, Uranium, NH3, and water rise up on generation spots- in minus forty C. This causes no heat at ground level. The rising material daily occurs, til about 11 pm.

      Then it can form huge pillars of hollow icicles, or cryovolcanoes, atop the sodium layer elsewhere at 90 km in height.

      Atmospheres are lower in polar regions. This is confirmed by airport aviators.

      On earth, do we say heat occurs for the globe due to Van Allen Radiation Belts?

      Work in progress. I am an eyewitness. Contact me.

    • comment by Ercolani-35 on 2023-08-03 21:07 UT

      A polar orbit is a very exceptional phenomenon, isn't it?

    • comment by Ercolani-35 on 2023-08-03 21:23 UT

      So sorry for misunderstanding, later I felt that my question is meaningless

  14. comment by Tiffany on 2022-06-07 19:47 UT

    Can’t wait to learn all about you Juno…❤️

  15. comment by JUNGKOOK on 2022-04-05 01:09 UT

    Wow!Great.I Love Juno very much.

  16. comment by TON-618 on 2021-12-06 16:34 UT

    can't wait to see more junosnaps of the galilean moons

  17. comment by Brody-42 on 2021-09-04 10:37 UT

    These images of Jupiter and Ganimede was captured on August 29, 2021 from city of Cremona (Northern Italy) through a 255mm F20 Maksutov Rumak telescope with Zwo ASI 224MC CMOS camera, IR Blocking filter and ADC Corrector. Video of 120sec at 30 fps with Sharpcap, was stacked 1800/3600 frames. Images processed with Astrosurface, registax, Fitswork, Camera Raw.

  18. comment by Seeker on 2021-06-15 23:00 UT

    Regards earthlings!

    Have you heard about Mission Rahma? It's a department of the Galactic Federation that takes care of the cosmic plan for Earth and Humankind and it's based at a deep abyss in Ganimedes, which they call "Morlen". They are teaching a contact protocol so we can tune in with their frequency and start communicating with them.

  19. comment by Seeker on 2021-06-11 18:26 UT

    Hi earthlings

  20. comment by Oujianquan-62 on 2021-02-08 09:17 UT

    couldn't we post-process those pictures to get more details..??

  21. comment by Huebner-95 on 2020-10-21 14:30 UT

    sorry, moons

  22. comment by Huebner-95 on 2020-10-21 14:30 UT

    what if we did a close up to the moon to see more about them?

  23. comment by Ujjwalruhela04 on 2020-09-24 02:42 UT

    The images must be more clear

  24. comment by Kaitlinmaria-18 on 2020-04-26 05:38 UT

    I would like to see more detailed images

  25. comment by Jha_Santosh on 2020-04-06 20:48 UT

    IO with volcanic plume will be worth to see. I'll be eagerly waiting for the Junocam snaps.

    • comment by Polarcuspian on 2022-09-28 17:53 UT

      Io seems to be a place paved with gold.

      The usual touch ups of space photography make Io the place for the greatest gold rush in history.

      Sometimes the pics loo brassy also.

      Lots of fools gold was found by new world explorers in north america.

      Io may have... Condensed something, distilled it, if images are not false.

    • comment by Polarcuspian on 2022-09-29 18:10 UT

      This pic shows a texture i would say is more sulfuric, from Io

  26. comment by Eviesobczak-69 on 2020-01-19 04:41 UT

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  27. comment by Bradshaw-73 on 2019-11-11 01:54 UT

    I would love to see more detailed pictures of the many moons of Jupiter.

  28. comment by Kapur-96 on 2019-11-11 00:51 UT

    It would be so cool to see time lapse photography of Io and its tidal Flexing, are there any images like this?

  29. comment by Shimanto-18 on 2019-11-09 23:59 UT

    This is an very interesting picture. I think there are many things and mysterious in this earth remained unknown. As I saw this picture, I was wondering how volcanic plume erupting from lo?

  30. comment by Wuyeesun-93 on 2019-06-25 21:40 UT

    this more of a question then a comment,but is it possible that the volcanic plume eruption.would this effect earth in anyway.say like a solar flare would

    • comment by Polarcuspian on 2022-09-28 18:03 UT

      This is an excellent question.

      Because Jupiter is the closest it has been since the early 1950`s, we cansee Io eruptions as a blinking with unaided naked eye research. I use glasses, only.

      Io blinks white and red when viewed naked eye. A person thinks it is nutty to watch, but keep watching.

      Our minds are so trained to ignore natural phenomena that disbelief meets naked eye viewing of Io.

    • comment by Polarcuspian on 2022-09-28 18:35 UT

      150 flumes on Io at any given moment.

  31. comment by Gamzatov-27 on 2019-06-01 07:34 UT

    Hi my name is vineet.I had developed an interest in astronomy in my 12th standard.At that time we had not so much sophisticated tools as are today to view and see jupitor.If we consider the time when gallileo was interested in astronomy we can get various answers for the quest.We humans do feel the effect of planetary motions and the solar system even when we are uneducated about these.As usual we had also learnt about the ancient scientists in our text books, but even today we are still completely unaware as to what prompted them to design telescopes and measuring instruments to actually lead to the todays research.We should be thankfull to them in this respect.Iam of the opinion that the various myths associated with universe have some logical base.We have to look from this angle also.Nothing is unimportant.Considering Jupitor, it impacts our thoughts as it is the biggest planet and the biggest planets also have more effects.What was in the past on Jupitor is still unknown ,but everyday we are getting answers and more qurious questions also.There are various theories evolving as precision and technology is improving and evolving.I think it will help us in the future.But we cannot neglect old thoughts and theories also.

    • comment by Polarcuspian on 2022-09-28 18:07 UT

      It is all work in progress.

      Learning forgiveness of non-direct observations is actually a part of astronomy.

  32. comment by Halaesus-32 on 2019-05-07 11:56 UT

    This looks cool

  33. comment by bzznzo on 2019-04-23 12:57 UT

    Think tank Io images here :

  34. comment by Candy on 2019-04-23 03:36 UT

    Go to the Think Tank to see the images of Io we've already acquired!