Jovian Moons [ID: 1]

There are at least 63 jovian moons! The largest four moons, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, are called the Galilean satellites because they were discovered by Galileo. We do not get close to them because Juno is in a polar orbit, but occasionally the spacecraft is close enough for images to be worthwhile. For example at PJ17 we imaged a volcanic plume erupting from Io!


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  1. comment by Polarcuspian on 2022-09-28 15:52 UT

    Juno is in a polar orbit.

    This is circumpolar science.

    We need to travel to other planets often to notice the unique regions of polarcusp dropins and outflows.

    Few think this is worthy of Earth study, but it is also here.

    • comment by Polarcuspian on 2022-09-28 15:56 UT

      I have tried to change my name in profile to Polarcuspian.

      I am not oriental, but North American.

      And i want my research known by my name, not stolen. fwater@, C. Luke Gurbin, not a person we are at war with. Do frame me.

    • comment by Polarcuspian on 2022-10-01 11:33 UT

      The circumpolar science is unique. I lived a while in Nunavut. There is a theory floating at JUNOsite of polar aurora causing heating of the planet.

      In my opinion, tjis will not be accurate. Why?

      These are ICE LIGHT areas. Auras do not happen outside polar regions. There is radioactivity involved as the colloidal is a mix of molecules, but also NH3.

      In Nunavut, Uranium, NH3, and water rise up on generation spots- in minus forty C. This causes no heat at ground level. The rising material daily occurs, til about 11 pm.

      Then it can form huge pillars of hollow icicles, or cryovolcanoes, atop the sodium layer elsewhere at 90 km in height.

      Atmospheres are lower in polar regions. This is confirmed by airport aviators.

      On earth, do we say heat occurs for the globe due to Van Allen Radiation Belts?

      Work in progress. I am an eyewitness. Contact me.

  2. comment by Tiffany on 2022-06-07 19:47 UT

    Can’t wait to learn all about you Juno…❤️

  3. comment by JUNGKOOK on 2022-04-05 01:09 UT

    Wow!Great.I Love Juno very much.